Understanding Cryptography: How Cryptography Works?

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Cryptography has become an essential aspect of modern-day communication and information security. It is the process of converting plain text into an unreadable format to protect the confidentiality and integrity of information.

The techniques of cryptography are used for various purposes, including securing communication channels, authenticating digital signatures, and protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access. In this article, we will explore the history of cryptography, the various cryptographic techniques, and their applications in modern times.

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the science of securing communication through codes and ciphers. The purpose of cryptography is to make sure that only the intended recipient can read the message and to ensure that the message has not been tampered with during transmission. Cryptography involves the use of mathematical algorithms and protocols to secure information.

History of Cryptography.

Cryptography has been used for thousands of years. The first known use of cryptography was by the ancient Egyptians, who used hieroglyphs to encode messages. The Greeks also used a form of cryptography known as scytale, which involved wrapping a piece of parchment around a rod of a particular diameter to reveal the message. During World War II, cryptography played a vital role in the war effort. The Germans used the Enigma machine to encrypt their messages, but the Allies were eventually able to break the code with the help of Alan Turing.

Cryptographic Techniques.

Cryptography involves several techniques to secure information. The most common techniques are Symmetric Encryption, Asymmetric Encryption, and Hash Functions.

  • Symmetric Encryption.

    Symmetric encryption includes making use of the same key to encrypt and decrypt the communication. To communicate securely, the sender and recipient have to use the same key. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Data Encryption Standard (DES) are two examples of symmetric encryption.
  • Asymmetric Encryption.
    Asymmetric encryption, also known as public-key encryption, involves using a pair of keys: a public key and a private key. The person who sends it encrypts the communication with their public key, and the person who receives it decrypts it with their private key, Asymmetric encryption methods include RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC).
  • Hash Functions.
    Hash functions are used to create a unique digital fingerprint of a message. A hash function takes the message as input and produces a fixed-size output. SHA-256 and MD5 are two examples of hash functions.
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Cryptography Use Case in Modern Times.

Cryptography is widely used in modern times to secure information and communication. It can be found in a variety of areas such as finance, healthcare, and government. Cryptography is also used to secure e-commerce transactions, mobile devices, and cloud computing.

Applications of Cryptography.

Cryptography has numerous applications, including:

  • Securing communication channels
  • Authenticating digital signatures
  • Protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access
  • Securing online transactions
  • Securing data in cloud storage
  • Protecting personal information

Risks and Limitations of Cryptography.

While cryptography is essential for securing information, it is not foolproof. Cryptography can be vulnerable to attacks, such as brute force attacks and side-channel attacks. Additionally, cryptography can be limited by the quality of the implementation and the strength of the encryption algorithm.


Cryptography is a crucial aspect of modern-day communication and information security. The techniques of cryptography have evolved over time, and new methods are continually being developed. Cryptography is used to secure communication channels and authenticate digital signatures.

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